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真题解析,让你3分钟掌握SAT标点符号题的考点与解法

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    新SAT新增了标点符号题,就目前真考来看,标点符号每次必考,考点也越来越固定。本次我们主要看看冒号和分号的具体考点和解法。
 
首先我们应该明确,解决标点符号的题目:

第一要考虑使用该标点是否会影响句子主干;
第二要考虑是否符合该标点符号的语义作用。

我们先来看分号

分号的第一个常见用法是:

It’s used between two main clauses that balance each other and are too closely linked to be made into separate sentences (oxford dictionary)

即隔开两个相关且独立的分句,所以分号前后一般是完整的句子。

这个规则可以帮助我们很快的去确定选项正误。

Eg:  An art director searched North Africa; I went to the Canary Islands.

例题:

the name kingman was elected for its two parts, “king” and “man”; Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition.”(og:dong kingman)

A no change
B parts: “king” and “man,”
C parts “king” and “man”;
D parts ;“king” and “man”

    首先扫读选项,确定考点:标点符号,在这我们会发现至少有三个选项都是使用分号:分别是acd,但是根据句子结构判断,都不符合前后是完整句子,直接排除。选择b :用冒号来表示解释说明。
 
分号还有第二个用法:

used to separate the parts of a complicated sentence or items in a detailed list, showing a pause that is longer than a comma but shorter than a full stop/period

(该用法在新sat中暂未考察过,此处只做补充。)
 
eg: The study showed the following: 76% of surveyed firms monitor employee Web-surfing activities, with 65% blocking access to unauthorized Internet locations; 57% monitor employee telephone behavior, including the inappropriate use of voicemail.
 
冒号的作用是:to explain an abstract noun or introduce a list.

冒号主要的作用是解释和列举。冒号前应该是完整句,冒号后可以是词,短语甚至是句子。

Eg :
The job calls for skills in the following areas: proofing, editing, and database administration.
 
真题检验1 :

But Jason Box, an associate professor of geology at Ohio State, believes that another factor added to the early 16thaw; the “dark snow” problem.

A NO CHANGE
B thaw; and it was
C thaw:
D thaw: being

首先我们应该先扫读选项,确定考察点是标点符号。第二,回到句子理解句子语义:the “dark snow” problem. 就是前文里面所说的another factor,选择c 选项,冒号表示解释。
 
真题检验2 :

However, although well 29 compensated earning in 2012 a median annual salary of $90,930, PAs cost health care providers less than do the physicians who might otherwise undertake these tasks.(2016/5月北美真题-29)

A No change
B compensated (earning in 2012 a median annual salary of $90,930),
C compensated, earning in 2012 a median annual salary of $90,930
D compensated: earning in 2012 a median annual salary of $90,930,

    先扫读选项,确定考察点是标点符号。第二,回到句子理解句子语义:不难看出此处earning in 2012 a median annual salary of $90,930 是做状语说明 well compensated。根据语义分析大部分同学应该可以很快排除b c选项,而纠结于a d两个选项:因为括号和冒号都可以表示解释说明,不知如何取舍。

    但是根据我们刚刚说冒号使用的句子结构规则:冒号前是完整句子。我们可以很快排除d 选项,因为冒号前面只有although well compensated这个从句。最后选择a 选项,用括号来表示补充说明。
 
但这个句子结构规则在使用的时候要注意冒号前应该是完整的句子主干。

真题检验3:

The designer envisions the game’s fundamental 35elements: the settings, characters, and plots that make each game unique, and is thus a primary creative force behind a video game. (og4-35)

A) NO CHANGE
B) elements: the settings, characters, and plots that make each game unique—
C) elements—the settings, characters, and plots that make each game unique—
D) elements; the settings, characters, and plots that make each game unique;

    同理,第一,扫读选项,确定考点。第二,回到原句理解语义the settings, characters, and plots that make each game unique 应该是fundamental elements的列举,因此大家应该能比较快的排除bd选项:b选项破折号使用错误。D选项分号前后应该是完整句子。大部分同学会在ac之间纠结。事实上,a 选项冒号前面虽然是完整的句子,但是and is thus a primary creative force behind a video game并非是冒号所涵盖的内容,是句子的主干成分(整个句子完整的逻辑语义是:The designer envisions the game’s fundamental elements, and is thus a primary creative force behind a video game.)不能直接放在冒号后面。所以a 选项错误。答案选c.

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